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With increasing concern for water scarcity and growing demand for environmentally sustainable practices, it’s good to remember that even small improvements in water consumption can make a big impact over time.
But to achieve those incremental savings and to make sure that your water-saving techniques have favorable effects, you’ll need to improve the accuracy of monitoring by deep diving into the technology you are using.
In addition to the cost-effective solutions & saving in consumption, accurate and frequent water measurement techniques also helps you catch and monitor all the possible total flow and leaks before they severely affect the building.
Different magnetic sensors such as reed switches or hall effect sensors are used to detect and assess the magnet rotation, extra electronics generate a voltage pulse proportional to the water flow. In this way, it reflects and captures the water consumed.
Different types of water meters are being used for different purposes as follows:
S.No. Pulse Based Output Water Meter (Magnetic) Ultrasonic Water Meter Electromagnetic Water Meter
1. Automatic Water Meter Reading on an hourly basis Automatic Water Meter Reading in real-time monitoring Automatic Water Meter Reading in real-time monitoring
2. Moving parts with a reed switch Static Meters Static Meters
3. The volume of water determined using Pulse Radiation/Signal based readings Electromagnetic induction-based reading
4. Insensitive to Temperature, Pressure & Viscosity Sensitive to Solid suspended particles & air bubbles Unaffected by the temperature, pressure, density, or viscosity of the liquid

To transmit the water meter data between the meter and the users, the system uses the  LoRa transceiver module which is the AMR unit. The Automatic Water Meter eliminates the hassles & errors in the case of Manual Readings Systems. In India, mostly conventional mechanical reading meters are being used, a person needs to go to every meter to note down the reading and then he prepares the bill.
 The AMR has multiple features to beat the conventional system, which are as follows:
• Easy to use and deploy
• Tamper alert
• Long-range wireless data transmission
• Removal Detection
• Low Maintenance cost
• Configurable data frequency time
The final reading is thus sent wirelessly from AMR using the LoRa transmitter module which is at both the transmitter as well as  LoRaWAN Hand-Held unit or Static LoRaWAN Gateway.  The Hand-Held unit & Gateway comprising the LoRa module can cover a distance of up to 2km in urban areas and up to 5km when the line of sight.
As per the LoRaWAN architecture, the encrypted data sends to the LoRa Network Server.
A user can also monitor & control the consumption through either Web-based or Mobile based Applications. The Application has the following features:
  1. Multi-Level Accounts/Logins.
  2. History Tracking through Downloadable Reports.
  3. Recharge System: Prepaid or Postpaid both.
  4. User Registration with Flat Numbers/Ids.